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Ecuaciones explícitas para el cálculo del tirante crítico en canales trapeciales y circulares
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Ecuaciones explícitas para el cálculo del tirante crítico en canales trapeciales y circulares

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  • José Óscar Guerrero Angula
  • Felipe l. Arreguín Cortés
  • Jorge Luis Félix Higuera

En el caso de canales de secciones tiiangulares y rectangulares es posible obtener una ecuación directa para calcular el tirante crítico; en los canales de sección trapecial y circular no sucede lo mismo, la ecuación es implícita y es común el uso de métodos de aproximaciones sucesivas, numéricos y gráficos. Las ecuaciones explícitas tienen la ventaja de facilitar el cálculo de dicho tirante, provocando el interés de varios especialistas en proponer soluciones a este problema. Sin embargo, el nivel de precisión algunas veces no es el deseado, lo que impulsa a tratar de mejorar cada vez más este tipo de ecuaciones. En el presente trabajo se proponen ecuaciones explícitas para el cálculo del tirante crítico de canales trapeciales y circulares con diferente nivel de precisión, encontrando algunas ventajas sobre las ecuaciones de otros autores. Enlos canales trapeciales se obtienen errores máximos de +0.002 y -O.002%, yen el caso de canales circulares se obtienen errores máximos de +0.1749 y -O. 1693%, en un intervalo suficientemente amplio de datos.

Palabras clave: tirante crítico, régimen crítico, canaltrapecial, canalcircular, hidráulica de canales.


Explicit equations for the calculation of the critical head in trapezoidal and circular channels.

In the case of triangular and rectangular channels, it is possible to obtain a direct equation in arder to calculate the critical head. Thisis not so for trapezoidaland circularchannels, wherethe equation is implicit and the use of successive approximationsand numerical and graphical methods is common. Explicit equations have the advantage of facilitating the calculationof the critical head,stirringthe interest of several specialists in proposing solutions to this problem. However; the precision level is sometimes not all that satisfactory, which leads to continue trying to improve this type of equations. This paper propases explicit equations for the ca/culation of the criticalhead of trapezoidaland circular channels with differentlevelsof precision, findingsome advantages withrespect to the equationsof otherauthors.Regardingtrapezoidal channels, themaximumerrorpercentages were +0.002 and -0.002. In the case of circular channels, themaximumerrorpercentages foundwere +0.1749 and -O. 1693 in a sufficiently wide data range.

Keywords: critical head, critical regime, trapezoidalchannel, circular channel, channel hydraulics.







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