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Desalinización del agua
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Desalinización del agua

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  • Felipe I. Arreguín Cortés
  • Alejandra Martín Domínguez

México se enfrenta a serios problemas de abastecimiento de agua en muchas regiones, debido a la mala distribución espacial y temporal de este líquido. La desalinización de agua salobre o de mar es una opción que se utiliza en muchos países para producir agua para consumo humano, procesos industriales y para cultivos de alto valor comercial en invernaderos. En este trabajo se revisan los principales procesos de desalinización, y se analizan los factores que afectan sus costos. El precio promedio de desalinizar agua salobre es de USO0.351fTi3 Y el de agua de mar USO 1.541fTi3. El costo de desalinizar agua con una planta paquete de hasta 1,900 nr/dte, es de USO2.651fTi3, cuando la energía eléctrica cuesta del orden de USO0.12IkWh. Los principales impactos ambientales de las plantas desalinizadoras se presentan durante la construcción; otros son causados por el incremento en el uso de la energía, por la emisión de compuestos de nitrógeno y oxígeno, por las descargas de salmuera, por la acción de las obras de toma y por la posibilidad de que se fomente el crecimiento poblacional en torno a la planta.

Palabras clave: desalinización, aguas salobres, aguas marinas, destilación, ósmosis inversa, membranas, plantas desaladoras.


Water desalination

Mexico faces serious water supply problems in many regions as a result of poor natural spatial and temporal distribution. Oesalination of brackish or salty water is an option used in many countries to produce water for human cansumption, industrial processes and high-market veiue crops in greenhouses. The principal desalination processes are reviewed and the factors affecting costs are analyzed in this paper. The average cost ot desalinating brackish water is USO 0.351m3 and seawater is 1.541m3. The cost of treating water wih a package plant with a yield of 1,900m31day is USO 2.65 1m3 when the electricity rate is approximately USOo. 121kWh. The principal environmental effects ot a desalinating plant are seen during canstruction. The increase in electricity consumption, the emissian of nitrogen-cantaining compounds and oxygen, the farmation of brine, the action ot the intaker and the passible population increase around the plant may also have an environmental impacto

Key words: desalination, brackish water, seawater, distillation, reverse osmosis, membranes, desalinating plants.







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January 8th, 2010

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The 24th Latin American Congress on Hydraulics will take place in Punta del Este, Uruguay, November 21 through 25, 2010. The event is organized by the Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Environmental Engineering (IMFIA) of the Engineering Division of the University of the Republic of Uruguay.

 

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